Located in the lowest part of Salento between Castro, Andrano and Diso, Marittima is about 48km from Lecce. The part of the country overlooking the coast is named Marina di Marittima
According to popular opinion, the name of the town is due to its proximity to the sea. In fact, the coast is only a kilometre from the town. It has also been claimed that the name is related to the founders of the area, who arrived by sea and would have been called marittimi; so Marittima indicates the place where they lived.
There is no definite information on the origins of the town although it is assumed that Marittima was founded or inhabited by the Messapi and that it suffered the same fate as its neighbours, Vaste, Diso and Castro, which were overtaken first by the Romans and then by the Byzantines, the Normans and Angevins.
The first written document confirming the presence of the settlement dates back to 1277; the Angevin registers from one year inform us of a certain "Rubeo de Soliaco" who was named "Lord of Casale Marittima".
In the feudal period, Marittima was part of Castro County which was under the control of various noble families including the Orsini Del Balzo, Gattinara, Ruiz De Castro and the Lopez De Zunica families. This control lasted until 1809 when the Rossi family became the owners of Marittima.